Russell County, Virginia was founded by Colonel William Russell in 1786 out of a section of Washington County. The first court met in May of 1786 in the home of William Robinson in the Castle's Woods settlement area. Later, a structure, now referred to as the "Old Courthouse", was built for the County Seat. The current courthouse, located in Lebanon, has been in use since 1874. With a starting population of less than 4,000 people, Russell County has now expanded to be home to more than 28,000 people.